Frequently Asked Questions
How does water disinfection work?
Aqua Pulsar's electro-oxidization units disinfect water on-site and on-demand with immediate results from just salt, water, and electricity. Water disinfection by electrochemical activation is not only more effective than conventional methods of water disinfection, but it is less expensive to maintain, safer to your health and environmentally friendly.
What kind of contaminants are eradicated?
Our electro-Oxidation technology generates oxidants that eliminate common microbial contaminants:
Caliciviruses (including Norovirus)
Enterovirus (including polioviruses, coxsakieviruses, and echoviruses)
Escherichia coli (O157)
How does it work?
Aqua Pulsar's systems generate a mixed oxidant solution primarily composed of powerful oxidants such as ozone and chlorine dioxide etc. Hypochlorous acid is a powerful oxidant that is stable in solution that can kill microbial pathogens immediately upon contact by damaging cell walls and disrupting internal proteins, lipids, and DNA.
Has it been researched?
In the last 30 years multiple published research articles supporting the use of Electro-Oxidation for disinfection. With multiple oxidation chemicals generated in the reactor, all organic and inorganic contaminants are oxidized including bacteria, viruses, fungi and algae etc.
What about EPA regulation?
E300 Electro-oxidation process generated oxidants including hypochlorous acid is a free chlorine molecule, it falls under the Safe Water Drinking Act (42 U.S.C. 300f et seq. 1974) which allows for a free chlorine concentration of up to 4 ppm.
How is bacteria disinfection achieved?
Bacterial disinfection takes place as a result of electrolysis that occurs as the contaminated water is exposed to different oxidants that are generated by our unique mixed metal oxide coated electrodes. During the electrolysis process, these electrodes generate different types of oxidants in the effluent. The primary oxidants are H2O2, O3, OH-, Hypochlorite and Or Hypobromite. These oxidants are utilized to kill bacteria, mostly sulfur-reducing bacteria and acid-producing bacteria, present in the produced and flow backwater that are responsible for acidic corrosion. The bacteria also generate hydrogen sulfide gas and a slimy mucus which plugs the pores of the formation reducing the output of the well. As per field tests, Aqua Pulsar’s Hyper Oxidation process has been tested in the field to support elimination of bacteria while maintaining the level of disinfectant oxidants to prevent regrowth.
This more efficient water treatment process, eliminates the need for chemicals, softeners and uses minimal energy. Our systems use as little power as a blow dryer.
How does the brine softening effect occur in the process?
Produced water and flow- back water mostly contains mono and divalent cations. Divalent cations are notorious for causing scale in pipes, thus compromising the production of hydrocarbons. During the electrolysis process, divalent cations (Ca, Ba, Sretc) are precipitated on the cathode surface to create carbonates and sulfates. Once these elements form as particles, i.e. convert from TDS to TSS, they remain attached to the cathode surface. These micro precipitated particles will not form a scale. They will remain in suspension and will not chemically interfere with hydraulic fracturing chemicals. The size of these micro precipitated particles is less than 0.5 microns and will easily pass through any inline filter.
How does Aqua Pulsar monitor and assure the quality of the treatments?
Aqua Pulsar water treatment systems incorporate various sensors installed at the process inlet and outlet, Salinity, PH, ORP, pressure, etc. The ORP (Oxidation Reduction Potential) sensor gives comparative data about the quality of the water being processed. It has been observed that with organic loading, the ORP reading tends to show low or negative MV. During the hyper-oxidation treatment process, the ORP level of the effluent is raised by oxidizing organic contaminants. The PID loop control system on the units reads ORP data continuously reflecting the quality of water produced during the process. During the operation, samples are also collected for lab analysis to quantify the performance of the process.
How does the treated water interact with chemicals used in the Hydraulic Fracturing process?
Produced water treated using Aqua Pulsar’s technology has the following distinctive properties:
It is sterilized, i.e. bacteria-free.
All scale-causing minerals are precipitated making produced water behave like fresh water with no scaling ability. It has a low surface tension and no precipitation reaction with formation water.
All heavy metals, such as Fe, are in an oxidized form and do not interfere with fracking chemicals.
Disinfectant levels are maintained similar to swimming pool water, making it safe to operate at the frac job site.
Treated produced water hydrates the polymer the same as fresh water allowing energy operators to use generic friction reducers on high TDS produced water.